ANARCHISTS AND BASQUES IN THE SECOND WORLD WAR. 2. HEADED FOR OBLIVION. Cazafortines – 2016. Translated by Paul Sharkey

CONTENTS 

  1. Friction with the AGE: the Case of the Basques
  2. Friction with the UNE: the Libertad Battalion case – Ravanel – FFI (French Forces of the Interior)
  3. The Libertad Battalion: a Brand-New Scenario
  4. The Libertad Battalion and the Libertarian Movement – The Libertad Battalion and the Libertarian Press – The Libertad Battalion: Question Marks
  5. The Enigma of Santos, the Libertad Battalion’s comandante

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ANARCHISTS AND BASQUES IN THE SECOND WORLD WAR. 1. THE LIBERTAD AND GERNIKA BATTALIONS IN THE LIBERATION OF FRANCE (1944-1945). Cazafortines – 2016. Translated by Paul Sharkey

Dedicated to Cristina Plaza, a beloved friend whose departure has left us bereft. We would have loved you to have read this

(PART ONE) CONTENTS

  1. The Fighting on the Médoc Peninsula and in Pointe de Grave
  2. The Origin of the Gernika Battalion: the Agrupación de Guerrilleros Españoles (AGE)
  3. Origin of the Libertad Battalion: Lot-et-Garonne

Eysses Prison in Villeneuve-sur-Lot

The Dolle Maquis – northern Lot

Creation of the Libertad Battalion

Wilebaldo Solano’s version

The Maquis in Lot-et-Garonne

The CNT Agrupación in Fumel

The Maquis in Les Landes

24th AGE DIVISION – Commandants ROBERT and MARTA

24th DIVISION’s 31st BRIGADE (renamed the 3rd BRIGADE) – Commandant BARBAS

Creation of the Libertad Battalion. A different version.

The Maquis in the Dordogne

The SOLEIL Maquis – The CARLOS Maquis – The LEÓN Maquis

The Maquis in Tarn et Garonne

The SEPTFONDS INTERNMENT CAMPS

The Maquis in the Massif Central

The L’Aigle Dam

The Maquis, the CNT and the Resistance

The L’Aigle Dam Maquis and the UNE

  1. CNT PERSONNEL INSIDE COMMUNIST ORGANIZATIONS
  2. REGARDING ORIGINS AND EXODUSES

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LA RESISTENCIA INTERIOR EN LA ESPAÑA DE FRANCO Valentina Fernández Vargas (eBook – Mobi)

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 La naturaleza del franquismo ha suscitado múltiples discusiones que, en mi opinión, pueden aclararse bastante si partimos del análisis del Estado español entre 1939 y 1975.1

Es sabido que un Estado soberano necesita una serie de medios cuyas características varían según el servicio que hayan de prestar y de las condiciones históricas en que se encuadren. Ha de contar con un territorio, base geográfica del poder, delimitado por unas fronteras militares y por unas barreras económicas —las aduanas—que sirven para defender, y controlar, a los nacionales y a los extranjeros. Debe tener, asimismo, un gobierno y una administración; el grado de participación de los gobernados en estos organismos y la distribución social de los beneficios nacionales sirven para definir al Estado como autocrático o democrático. Finalmente, la autoridad considerada no sólo como ejecutivo, sino también como cuerpo teórico que configura toda la organización, puede proceder de una situación de hecho o de derecho, y autodefinirse de forma más o menos democrática.

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CIPRIANO MERA SANZ. Portrait of a militant

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Cipriano Mera Sanz  was born on 4 November 1897 in Madrid’s Tetuán de las Victorias quarter. His childhood was tough, as it was for every other working class family.

He never got the chance to go to school and, from a very young age, he was forced out to work by the need to make some contribution towards the running of his humble household. At the age of 16 Mera made up his mind to become a bricklayer and, so that his rights would be protected, his father enrolled him the UGT-affiliated ‘El Trabajo’ bricklayers’ society. From then on, Mera was up to his neck in social issues and labour affairs. But he soon found that the what the UGT stood for and what he was looking for were not the same thing, and he found the socialists’ trade unionism a bit restrictive. Cipriano Mera was out for a revolutionary change that reformism just did not offer.

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The Murder and Burial of Camillo Berneri and Francesco Barbieri in Barcelona, May 1937 by Agustín Guillamón (Translated by Paul Sharkey)

  1. The Murder

Francesco Barbieri (1895-1937)
Camilo Berneri (1897-1937)

“At 10.00 a.m. on the morning of Tuesday 4 May, two individuals wearing red arm-bands presented themselves at Apartment No 1, 2 Plaza del Ángel. They were received by comrades Berneri[1] and Barbieri[2], whom they told not to shoot as they were friends and there was nothing to fear. Our comrades replied that, as antifascists who had come to Spain to defend the revolution, they had no reason to be shooting at antifascist workers.

The two individuals then left and were seen from the window to enter the premises opposite belonging to the UGT union. At around 3.00 p.m. the same day, five or six individuals wearing the same red arm-bands as the ones who called that morning, plus steel helmets and shotguns called to the apartment again, stating that they had authority to effect a search. Seeing that the search was thorough, comrade Tantini handed three rifles over to them, stating that they had been left there for safe-keeping by three militians who had turned up on leave from the Huesca front. After collecting the rifles, the UGT personnel and policemen left, just two of the latter staying behind to complete the search. Papers found in comrade Fantosi’s room and a few books and maps from comrade Mastrodicasa’s room were taken away. As for comrade Berneri’s room[3], given the volume of the material there, they made off with only a portion of it, stating that they would be back with a car. As they left, they warned our comrades not to venture outside and to keep away from the windows, unless they wanted to get themselvers shot. The searchers, upon being questioned, replied that they had had reports of armed Italian anarchists in the apartment.

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