In 1957 Victor García*, considered by some to be the Marco Polo of the international anarchist movement (because of his extensive travels), visited Japan where he was welcomed by Taiji Yamaga, with whom he spent three months travelling to many cities and towns in the archipelago being introduced to most of the survivors of the Japanese libertarian movement. On his second visit in 1974, Víctor García interviewed more old and new militants to glean the material for this his magnum opus on Japanese anarchism, Museifushugi. Translated from the Spanish by Paul Sharkey and edited, and substantially expanded and enhanced by ‘Wat Tyler’, an English teacher, a comrade, living in Osaka, Museifushugi, was originally scheduled for publication in 1981 by Cienfuegos Press but was scrapped when the printer ‘lost’ the corrected galleys in a fire and refused to re-set the book, a costly setback which effectively bankrupted Cienfuegos Press. In 2013, over 30 years later, we salvaged the proofs and re-set the text, which has been further updated by Wat Tyler who still lives and works in Japan. Volume II of Museifushugi, covering the years from WWII through to the present day, will appear later this year in a Kindle edition, and we may at some point publish a short-run print edition.
* TOMÁS GERMINAL GRACIA IBARS (1919-1991), better known by the pseudonym ‘Victor Garcia’, the most commonly used of his many pseudonyms (Germen, Santo Tomás de Aquino, Egófilo, G. G, Ibars, Quipo Amauta, Julian Fuentes), a founder of the Catalan Libertarian Youth (JJLL) was one of the most prolific writer-propagandist-activists of the Spanish anarchist movement in the post Civil War period. When his father died the family settled in Barcelona where he worked in the textile industry from the age of 12. At fourteen he joined the CNT, and in 1936, Gracia’s ‘Libertarian Youth’ organisation; by August 1936 he was active in the ‘Quixotes of the Ideal’ affinity group along with Abel Paz (Diego Camacho), Liberto Sarrau and others. When the military attempted their pronunciamento in July 1936 he joined the Los Aguiluchos flying column, but deserted the front when the militias were forced to disband and militarisation was enforced towards the end of 1936. Subsequently, he was a bookkeeper at CNT-FAI headquarters in Barcelona, but following the Republican defeat at the battle of the Ebro in 1938 he joined the 26th Division (former Durruti Column) and was wounded in Tremp, after which he crossed the frontier and went into exile (and imprisonment) in the French concentration camps of Argelés, Barcarés and Bram. Arrested by the Germans in 1942 for suspected Resistance activities he was held in Vernet prison but escaped before he could be transferred to Dachau. After the Liberation, Germinal was appointed administrative secretary of the Paris-based Libertarian Youth organisation (FIJL), but soon resigned due to personal differences with other FIJL Committee members. Returning to Spain clandestinely in 1946 he worked for the underground Libertarian Youth (FIJL) organisation but was arrested that December. Released in July 1947 he was employed for a time in the building trade but in August 1948 was forced to return to France across the Pyrenees having escaped a police trap set for him. Emigrating to Venezuela in December 1948 he remained there until 1954 when he embarked on a world tour which took him to Uruguay, Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Panama, Southeast Asia, Japan, China, India, Turkey, Egypt, Iraq, Istrael, Cyprus, Greece, Italy, Germany, Holland and France, finally returning to Venezuela in 1961 to head the secretariat of the now re-united CNT-in-Exile (MLE), and to relaunch the FIJL journal Ruta. Expelled from the CNT in 1966, Germinal moved first to France and then to Libya, and thence back to Caracas in 1969 to resume the editorship of Ruta. Germinal died in Castelnou, France, on 10 May 1991 after a long and painful illness. An inveterate traveller until his death, ‘Victor’ regularly sent me snapshots from his latest exotic destination along with fascinating news of the comrades and groups he had discovered and befriended on his travels. A remarkable, kind, and lovely man, he truly was the ‘Marco Polo’ of the post-war anarchist movement. Stuart Christie
FOREWORD BY THE LATE AUGUSTINE SEIICHI MIURA ; 1979 PREFACE BY WAT TYLER; INTRODUCTION Important Dates (to 1975); Abbreviations.
AN HISTORICAL SYNOPSIS: 1 The Struggles for Power; 2 The Christian Century; 3: Isolation; 4: Tokugawa Society; 5 Arrival of the West; 6 The Centralisation of Power; 7 The Rise and Fall of Militarism
THE HISTORICAL ANCESTRY OF ANARCHISM: 8 Exponents of Libertarian Collectivism: Myôden and Uji; Myôden; Uji; 9 The Revolts of the Middle Ages; 10 A Synthesis of Zen; 11 Andô Shôeki: Forgotten Ancestor
THE MODERN JAPANESE ANARCHIST MOVEMENT (1): 12 The Oriental Socialist Party; 13 The Introduction of Socialist Theory; Labour After the Meiji Restoration; The Beginnings of Unrest; Mukôjima Workers’ Festival; Kemuriyama Sentarô’s “Modern Anarchism”; 14 Seedbed of Socialism: Nakae Chômin and the Popular Rights Movement; The Popular Rights Movement; 15 Kôtoku Shûsui and the Intellectual Rejection of the State; Architect of Anarchism; Kôtoku’s Socialism; The Anti-War Movement; Kôtoku Becomes an Anarchist; The High Treason Case: State Conspiracy; Kôtoku and Christianity; The Trial; 16 Ôsugi Sakae and the Anarchist Labour Movement; Introduction; From Army Cadet to Jailbird; “One Offence, One Language”; The Incident at the Hikage Teahouse; The Growth of the Labour Movement; The Origins of the Anarchist Labour Movement; Ôsugi and the Anarchist-Bolshevik Confrontation; The Levellers’ Society; Ôsugi in Paris; Ôsugi’s Murder; 17 An Anarchist Martyrology; Namba Daisuke; Furuta Daijirô; Nakahama Tetsu; Gotô Kentarô; Creation of the Guillotine Group; Muraki Genjirô; Wada Kyûtarô; The Second Phase of the Guillotine Group; Summary; Kaneko Fumiko and Pak Yeol; The Critique of the Emperor System; 18 “Pure Anarchism” versus Syndicalism; The Background; The Communist Movement; The Labour Movement; The Zaibatsu; The Split in the Levellers’ Society; “Pure Anarchism” versus Syndicalism; The Black Youth Federation; The National Free Federation of Labour Unions; The Anarchist Movement Splits; The Political Debate; Iwasa Sakutarô; Hatta Shúzô (1886-1934); Ishikawa Sanshirô; The Japan Free Federation Council of Labour Unions; The Rise of Fascism; Anti-Fascism and the Anarchist Reconciliation; 19: Eleventh-Hour Proposals; The Liberated Culture Federation; The Japan Anarchist-Communist Party; The Village Youth Society; News from Spain; Collapse; 20: Women and the Japanese Anarchist Movement; Introduction; Some Forgotten Women of the Anarchist Movement; The Beginnings of the Feminist Movement; The Rising Tide; The Anarchist Women’s Movement; Conclusion
NOTES; REFERENCES (Western languages); POSTSCRIPT; REFERENCES (Japanese language); BOOKS and NEWSPAPERS consulted by Victor Garcia
Interview with ‘Mr Kim’, a Korean anarchist closely involved with the Japanese anarchist movement — 1
strong>Interview with ‘Mr Kim’, a Korean anarchist closely involved with the Japanese anarchist movement — 2